On Bionics in industrial design

2022-08-12
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On Bionics in industrial design (Part 1)

preface

nature is full of living examples of "excellent design", which is an inexhaustible "design database" for designers. Such as inanimate mountains and rivers, living birds and animals, as well as colorful flowers and trees, in addition to rich shapes, gorgeous colors also give people visual enjoyment. After millions of years of natural evolution of the law of survival of the fittest, these animals and plants not only fully adapt to nature, but also their degree of evolution is close to perfection. Some of these natural "excellent designs" have complete functions and are amazing; Some are exquisite in structure and reasonable in material use, which conforms to the economic principles of nature; Some are too beautiful to be put down; Some are even formed according to some mathematical laws, which "how does the overall status of China's automotive non-metallic material technology meet the requirements of" using the least materials "to form the" maximum reasonable space ". The strange abilities of these creatures are thought-provoking and make people think about it. In addition to our appreciation, can we get some inspiration from these exquisite designs? The answer is yes

I. Bionics in history

it seems that human beings have known in the distant years, and the popularity will be further expanded to understand the true meaning of their own survival, development and progress from the natural ecosystem. It is on the basis of imitating and adapting to the laws of nature that human beings entered the civilized age from the ignorant age. Looking back on the history of ancient civilization in China, it is not difficult to see that people left traces of imitating natural ecology early. From the "image of human heart construction" built by ancient primitive people, such as human head, dragon body, human face and bird body, to practical utensils based on various animal forms in real life, such as ox shaped lamps, pigs, Eagle shaped pots, etc. From the emergence of human beings in myths and legends to Luban's "understanding" of the principle of saws from the toothed edge of grass leaves in the spring and autumn and Warring States periods, a large number of examples describe people's creative imitation of the external forms and functions of natural life

it is the same in foreign countries. In ancient times, people saw birds flying freely in the sky, and they yearned that people could fly to the sky like birds, so they imitated birds in various ways. After a long time, from the original wooden flying man to today's supersonic aircraft, the dream of human beings flying freely in the blue sky has finally been realized. Leonardo da Vinci is regarded as the father of modern bionics. In about 1500 A.D., after completing the bird wing model, he drew a series of sketches of impossible flight equipment. About 400 years later, Otto succeeded. The glider he built based on the wings of storks successfully flew 250 meters, and he also won the title of "father of gliders". The bamboo dragonfly we played when we were young is the trend of modern helicopters. For a long time, many researchers have been trying to apply the form and function analogy of nature to science

it can be seen that human beings have been imitating natural thinking for a long time, which led to the birth of bionics. Bionics is a new frontier discipline that develops between biological science and technical science, and simulates the principles of biological systems to build technical systems. Bionics is like a "bridge" and "link", connecting biological science and technological science. Bionic design is developed on the basis of bionics. Based on bionics, it studies the excellent functions, forms, structures, colors and other features of natural biological systems, and selectively applies these principles and features in the design process

Luigi, the famous German industrial designer Corrani is a strong advocate and practitioner of bionic design theory. His design philosophy containing human sense and his design concept calling for the harmonious unity of human society and nature are of great epoch-making significance. His distinctive bionic design principles and methods, strong modeling ideas, the IPO plan of Nanjing Julong raised 432million yuan and the design with great vitality, which successfully affected future generations of designers

using bionic thinking to design can be used as the intersection of human social production activities and nature, so that human society and nature can achieve a high degree of harmony and unity. Bionic design is gradually becoming the general trend of industrial design development

Second, bionics in modern industrial design

the main body of modern social civilization is man and machine. Under the ecological imbalance caused by this civilization, human beings began to reflect and strive to find a new way out, establish a dialogue platform between man and nature and machines, and the symbiotic philosophy strongly calls for a reasonable construction between man and machine, ecological nature and man-made nature, so as to create a high degree of harmony between human society and nature. Then, imitating nature's bionic design is a good strategy and new concept

bionic design is that people choose and improve their functions and forms through accumulating experience in the process of long-term learning from nature, so as to create better artifacts. Especially in today's information age, people's requirements for product design are different from those in the past. They not only pay attention to the excellent characteristics of functions, but also pursue the freshness and simplicity of forms, and pay attention to the simplicity and individuality of products. Bionic design is advocated, which not only creates products with complete functions, exquisite structures, reasonable materials and wonderful beauty, but also endows the product form with a symbol of life, so that the design can return to nature and enhance the unity between human beings and nature

Luigi corrani, a famous German design master, once said, "the basis of design should come from the truth presented by life born in nature". This shows that nature is a mystery containing endless design treasures. Summarize the bionics in modern industrial design, which is mainly manifested in the following aspects:

1. Bionics of form

form can be divided into concrete form and abstract form from the perspective of its fidelity and characteristics of reproduction of things

1) bionics of figurative form

figurative form is a form that can honestly reflect the external form into the eye membrane and stimulate the nerves through the eye structure with physiological natural response. It reproduces the shape of things realistically. Because the figurative form has such a visual defect, it is very interesting, cute, organic, friendly and natural. People are generally willing to accept it, and it is widely used in toys, handicrafts and daily necessities. However, due to the complexity of its form, many industrial products should not adopt concrete form

2) bionics of abstract forms

abstract forms use simple forms to reflect the unique essential characteristics of things. When this form acts on people, it will produce a "psychological" form. This "psychological" form requires the accumulation of life experience. After association and likeness, the form floats in the mind. It is an illusory and unrealistic form, but the form produced by personal subjective associations of happiness, anger, sorrow and happiness is variable and colorful, which is interesting because of the great difference between the form and the physiological one

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